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DEF Disease characterized by the growth of malignant cells in the mammary glands. Breast cancer can strike males and females, although women are about times more likely to develop the disease than men.

Most cancers in female breasts form shortly before, during, or after menopause, with three-quarters of all cases being diagnosed after age Generally, the older a woman is, the greater is her likelihood of developing breast cancer.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and in North America and Western Europe, where life spans are longer, the incidence is highest.

For instance, it is estimated that over 10 percent of all women in the United States will develop the disease at some point in their lives.

The exact causes of breast cancer are largely unknown, but both environmental and genetic factors are involved.

A family history of breast cancer increases risk. Prolonged exposure to the hormone estrogen, as when menstruation starts before age 12 and continues beyond age 50, favours development of cancer, and women who have had certain kinds of benign tumours are also more prone to developing breast cancer.

Other risk factors may include lack of exercise, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, and previous medical treatments involving chest irradiation.

The most common symptom of breast cancer is an abnormal lump or swelling in the breast, but lumps may also appear beside the breast or under the arm.

Other symptoms may include unexplained breast pain, abnormal nipple discharge, changes in breast texture, or changes in the skin on or around the breast.

Early diagnosis greatly improves the odds of survival. When detected early, breast cancer has a very high five-year survival rate, and patients who reach this stage often go on to live long, healthy lives.

Survival rates are lower for cancers that have spread locally, and they are very low for cancers that have metastasized, or spread, to distant parts of the body.

Breast cancer may be first discovered by the patient as the result of a regular breast self-examination. A breast X ray mammogram is often used for initial diagnosis, but in order to confirm the presence of cancer, a tissue sample biopsy usually must be taken.

If cancer is suspected to have spread to nearby lymph nodes, they must also be sampled. Several imaging methods may be used to determine the degree of metastasis, including X rays, computed tomography CT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

The presence of receptors for the hormones estrogen and progesterone is also determined because these receptors play an important role in the VI.

Almost all cases of breast cancer begin in the glandular tissues that either produce milk lobular tissue or provide a passage for milk ductal tissue to the nipple.

Cancers of these tissues are called lobular carcinomas and ductal carcinomas. Because these tissues are glandular, both cancers are called adenocarcinomas.

The most common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single hard, barely movable lump.

This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases. Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas.

There are several other types and subtypes of tumour classified and named according to several criteria, including their outward appearance, cellular composition, cellular origin, and activity.

Paget disease is an uncommon type of breast cancer that begins at the nipple and initially causes a burning, itching, or tender sensation.

Eventually the lesion becomes enlarged, cracks, oozes, and forms crusts. Inflammatory carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that results in swelling and reddening of the affected area.

The area then becomes purplish, and the skin is hot, with the nipple usually becoming crusted and retracted.

Any lump found in the breast should be examined by a physician for the possibility of cancer. If it is found to be malignant, treatment may entail surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.

Biological treatment is also an option. Surgery is often the first method of treatment, and a range of procedures are used depending on the type and progression of the cancer.

A lumpectomy removes only the cancerous mass and a small amount of surrounding tissue; a simple mastectomy removes the entire breast; and a modified radical mastectomy removes the breast along with adjacent lymph nodes.

Radical mastectomies involving removal of the breast, underlying muscle, and other tissue are rarely performed. Side effects of surgery may include changes in arm or shoulder mobility, swelling, infection, and numbness.

When lymph nodes are removed, fluid may build up in the region they were taken from. Partial or complete breast removal is often followed by cosmetic or reconstructive surgery.

Side effects of radiation include swelling or thickening of the breast, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, or skin irritations resembling sunburn.

Chemotherapy, the use of chemicals to destroy cancerous cells, is commonly employed. Chemotherapeutic agents also attack normal cells to some degree, causing side effects that include hair loss, immune suppression, mouth sores, fatigue, and nausea.

Breast cancer can also be treated through biological therapy, in which chemical inhibitors are used to block the hormones that stimulate growth of cancer cells.

Tamoxifen, for instance, is a common drug that blocks the ability of estrogen to stimulate tumour growth, and Megace blocks the action of progesterone by partially mimicking the hormone.

Herceptin is a manufactured antibody that binds to growth factor receptors on the surface of cancer cells and thereby blocks cell proliferation.

Breast cancer cannot be completely prevented, but the risk of developing advanced disease can be greatly reduced by early detection.

Women at high risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from taking tamoxifen to reduce their risk. Women who are at extreme risk, as determined by a very strong family history or the presence VI.

Die Therapie wird auf die jeweilige Erkrankungssituation der Patientin abgestimmt. Operative Behandlung Es wird in jedem Fall angestrebt, bei Brustkrebs brusterhaltend zu operieren.

Da viel Wert auf Kosmetik gelegt wird, werden Narben z. Die erste Station, die die Zellen hier passieren, sind die Achsellymphknoten.

Je nachdem ob bzw. Nach einer Mastektomie Brustentfernung muss im Normalfall nicht bestrahlt werden. Hier kann die Bestrahlung auch als erste Therapie eingesetzt werden.

Die Bestrahlung selbst ist schmerzfrei und erfolgt ambulant. Das Operationsgebiet bzw. Diese Therapie wird normalerweise nach einer Operation eingesetzt.

Die Medikamente werden entweder gespritzt oder als Infusion verabreicht. Zellen des Verdauungstraktes, Haarzellen oder Blutzellen durch die Therapie angegriffen.

Die Nebenwirkungen verschwinden wieder nach Beendigung der Therapie bzw. Liegt ein hormonsensibler Tumor vor, kann das Wachstum durch antihormonelle Medikamente gehemmt werden.

Often, a combination of these treatments is used. Surgery for breast cancer consists of two main options: Breast-conserving surgery in which only the tumor and an area of normal tissue surrounding it is removed and mastectomy in which all breast tissue is removed.

Breastconserving surgery includes lumpectomy in which a small amount of surrounding normal tissue is removed , wide excision or partial mastectomy in which a somewhat larger amount of the surrounding normal tissue is removed , and quadrantectomy in which one fourth of the breast is removed.

Surgery: The cancerous tumor and varying amounts of the surrounding tissue are removed. There are two main options for removing the tumor: breast-conserving surgery and removal of the breast mastectomy.

Breast-conserving surgery leaves as much of the breast intact as possible. There are several types: Lumpectomy is removal of the tumor with a small amount of surrounding normal tissue Wide excision or partial mastectomy is removal of the tumor and a somewhat larger amount of surrounding normal tissue Quadrantectomy is removal of one fourth of the breast Removing the tumor with some normal tissue provides the best chance of preventing cancer from recurring within the breast.

Breast-conserving surgery is usually combined with radiation therapy. The major advantage of breast-conserving surgery is cosmetic: This surgery may help preserve body image.

Thus, when the tumor is large in relation to the breast, this type of surgery is less likely to be useful. In such cases, removing the tumor plus some surrounding normal tissue means removing most of the breast.

Breast-conserving surgery is usually more appropriate when tumors are small. However, in most women, the treated breast shrinks somewhat and may change in contour.

Mastectomy is the other main surgical option. There are several types: Simple mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue but leaving the muscle under the breast and enough skin to cover the wound.

Reconstruction of the breast is much easier if these tissues are left. A simple mastectomy, rather than breast-conserving surgery, is usually performed when there is a substantial amount of cancer in the milk ducts.

Modified radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue and some lymph nodes in the armpit but leaving the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is usually performed instead of a radical mastectomy. Radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue plus the lymph nodes in the armpit and the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is rarely performed now. Lymph node surgery lymph node dissection is also performed if the cancer is or is suspected to be invasive.

Nearby lymph nodes usually about 10 to 20 are removed and examined to determine whether the cancer has spread to them. If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes, the likelihood that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body is increased.

In such cases, additional treatment is needed. Removal of lymph nodes often causes problems, because it affects the drainage of fluids in tissues.

As a result, fluids may accumulate, causing persistent swelling lymphedema of the arm or hand. Arm and shoulder movement may be limited.

Other problems include temporary or persistent numbness, VI. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative approach that may minimize or avoid the problems of lymph node surgery.

This procedure involves locating and removing the first lymph node or nodes into which the tumor drains.

If this node contains cancer cells, the other lymph nodes are removed. If it does not, the other lymph nodes are not removed.

Whether this procedure is as effective as standard lymph node surgery is being studied. Breast reconstruction surgery may be performed at the same time as a mastectomy or later.

The safety of silicone implants, which sometimes leak, has been questioned. However, there is almost no evidence suggesting that silicone leakage has serious effects.

Ein einzelner Muskel lat. Demnach unterscheidet man glatte Muskulatur und quer gestreifte Muskulatur.

Das einem Muskel zugrunde liegende Gewebe ist das Muskelgewebe, welches aus charakteristischen Muskelzellen besteht. Beim Skelettmuskel werden die Muskelzellen als Muskelfasern bezeichnet.

Wenn der Muskel sich zusammenzieht, gleiten diese Filamentreihen mit Hilfe von Querverbindungen, die wie Sperrklinken wirken, aneinander vorbei.

Die Muskelfasern kann man nach ihrer Funktion in schnelle und langsame Fasern einteilen. Bei manchen Krankheiten, z. It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle, and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs.

Much of muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart, or peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system.

Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.

There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.

Each muscle cell, or fiber, contains several myofibrils, which are composed of regularly arranged myofilaments of two types, thick and thin.

Each thick myofilament contains several hundred molecules of the protein myosin. Thin filaments contain two strands of the protein actin.

The myofibrils are made up of alternating VI. During muscular contractions, these interdigitated rows of filaments slide along each other by means of cross bridges that act as ratchets.

The energy for this motion is generated by densely packed mitochondria that surround the myofibrils. Smooth muscle is found in organs made up also of other tissues, such as the heart and intestines, which contain layers of connective tissue.

Skeletal muscle is usually found in bundles, composing muscular structures resembling organs in function. These often ripple the skin visibly during muscular action.

The shape of the muscular organ is dependent on its location and function. Muscle fibers have been classified by function into slow twitch type I and fast twitch type II.

Most skeletal muscles are composed of both types of fibers, although one type may predominate. The fast-twitch, darker-hued muscle fibers contract more rapidly and produce bursts of power; the slow-twitch, lighter-hued muscle fibers have greater endurance.

Muscles that are given proper exercise react to stimuli quickly and powerfully, and are said to possess tone.

As a result of excessive use, muscles may hypertrophy, that is, increase in size because of an increase in size of the individual muscle cells.

As a result of prolonged disuse, muscles may atrophy, or diminish in size, and become weaker. In certain diseases, such as various forms of paralysis, the muscles may atrophy to such a degree that they are reduced to a fraction of their normal size.

There are two such muscles on each side of the sternum breastbone in the human body: pectoralis major and pectoralis minor.

Der Narbenverlauf entspricht dem der Brustverkleinerung, d. Was kann eine Bruststraffung erreichen? Sagen Sie bitte, ob Sie derzeit Medikamente einnehmen und ob Vorerkrankungen bestehen.

Stellen Sie bitte alle Fragen, die Sie zu dieser Behandlungsform haben. Die Haut wird dann teilweise entfernt und gestrafft und die Brust so neu geformt.

Allgemein kann gesagt werden, ass je ausgedehnter die Hautschnitte sind, desto umfangreicher kann eine Neuformung der Brust erforderlich sein.

Die Haut um den Warzenvorhof wird dann entfernt. Wie lange dauert die Operation? Eine beidseitige Bruststraffung dauert ca.

Wenn nur kleinere Hautschnitte erforderlich sind, kann die Operation evtl. Wie viel Schmerzen werden Sie haben? Die leichten Schmerzen lassen sich jedoch gut mit Schmerzmitteln behandeln und werden von Tag zu Tag besser.

Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten? Die meisten Patientinnen sind schon unmittelbar nach der Operation sehr zufrieden.

Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich erholt haben? Wie sieht das langfristige Ergebnis bei den meisten Patientinnen aus? Blutungen, Infektionen oder Narkosereaktionen.

DEF 1a Breast lift or mastopexy surgery is a technique performed to restore a more youthful shape and position to a breast that has developed ptosis drooping of the breast related to aging, pregnancy, breast feeding, or weight loss.

As the skin loses its elasticity, the breasts often lose their shape and firmness and begin to sag. No surgery can permanently delay the effects of gravity.

Mastopexy can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple. Incisions required for breast lift are similar to those required for a breast reduction.

GLOSSAR B The major difference between a mastopexy and a reduction are that in a reduction the excess breast tissue is removed while in a lift it is lifted and rearranged to a more youthful position.

If your breasts are small or have lost volume, breast implants inserted in conjunction with mastopexy can increase both their firmness and their size.

Ideal candidates for breast lift or mastopexy surgery are those women who are pleased with the size of their breast when wearing a bra and those patients with good quality skin with few stretch marks.

Breast lift surgery, which may also be performed in conjunction with breast augmentation or breast reduction surgery, gives the affected women firmer and more youthful breasts, and can have a long-term positive effect on both their physical proportions and their self-esteem.

Breast lifts are an option for many women in very different age groups. Frequently the desire for cosmetic surgery comes after a number of pregnancies or major weight loss.

Other reasons include extreme, agerelated drooping of the breasts or congenital breast deformity different shaped breasts; excessively large nipples, etc.

Before Surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session. The two of you will decide whether a breast lift is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

The specialist will also indicate the kind of outcome you can expect and any side effects and risks of the treatment.

Two weeks before surgery you must refrain from taking any medication containing aspirin e. You may take Ponstan, Panadol or Voltaren as an alternative painkiller, if required.

If you are unsure about the best choice of medication, please feel free to consult us at any time.

The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic one and a half to two hours before your scheduled surgery.

The nursing staff and specialists will prepare you for the operation ahead. Your specialist will also go through the details of your operation with you again and the anaesthetist will explain the planned anaesthetic procedure.

The volume of the new breast will depend on the amount of available breast tissue. A classic breast lift involves the breast mound being remodelled internally and the skin lifted over it.

In such cases, the volume of the breast remains the same, but the shape of the breast is improved and lifted. The incision runs around the areola and in a vertical line extending in a downward direction.

In some cases another incision is required along the line of your natural breast crease. The procedure takes about two hours and may be performed under regional or general anaesthetic.

We recommend staying in the clinic for one or two nights after surgery. After Surgery After the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support VI.

The following day the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed.

Then you will be able to leave the clinic. A week later the support bandage will be removed and replaced by a sports bra.

This takes over the role of the support bandage and should be worn day and night for a further three weeks.

After four to six weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. In every other respect, be sure to follow the exact instructions of your specialist or nurse.

What are the risks posed by breast lift surgery? As a general rule, any operation carries with it certain risks e.

The specialist will discuss any potential risks with you as part of the consultation process and in preparation for surgery. What does breast lift surgery cost?

The cost of any treatment depends on the kind and extent of surgical intervention involved and can only be determined as part of a private consultation session and a medical examination.

If you decide to proceed with surgery, you will receive a detailed quote for all costs. The total amount must be paid no later than one month in advance of treatment, to ensure confirmation of the scheduled operation.

This advance payment, which is standard practice in the private health sector, is required so that the necessary preparations for your surgery can be made.

Are the costs of this surgery covered by health insurance? The costs of breast lift surgery are not covered by health insurance, as it is considered purely cosmetic surgery.

In the case of patients requiring simultaneous breast reduction surgery deemed medically necessary, partial cover or even full cover is possible.

However, any partial or full cover of costs by your health insurance company will depend on provision of a comprehensive medical report.

Will breast lift surgery leave any permanent scarring? Normally breast reduction surgery will leave faint, light scars that are scarcely noticeable.

Due to the removal of tissue and skin from the breasts, the position of the nipples will change.

To ensure an aesthetically pleasing result is achieved, the areola will be adjusted to suit the new breast and the nipple lifted into its new position.

This is normally achieved without any loss of sensation as a result. Das Resultat nennt man umgangssprachlich da die meisten Implantate aus Silikon sind auch Silikonbusen.

Das durchschnittliche Alter der Patientinnen sinkt von Jahr zu Jahr kontinuierlich. Dies ist unter anderem dann der Fall, wenn eine entstellende Fehlbildung der weiblichen Brust vorliegt, die eine Erkrankung im Sinne des Sozialgesetzbuches ist.

Die Kassen zahlen auch die Brustrekonstruktion mit Silikonimplantaten nach Brustamputation wegen einer Krebserkrankung.

Was kann durch eine Brustaugmentation erreicht werden? Wir werden mit Ihnen auch besprechen, wie z.

Unter gewissen Voraussetzungen, wie z. Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten, und wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben?

Es ist wichtig, dass Sie die Medikamente, die wir Ihnen verschrieben haben, auch einnehmen. Jemand sollte Sie unbedingt abholen und nach Hause fahren.

Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich wieder erholt haben? Es ist sehr wichtig, dass Sie den Ablauf nach der Operation genau mit uns besprechen.

Wenn Sie unsere Anweisungen befolgen, sollten Sie sich problemlos und schnell von dem Eingriff erholen. Nach einigen Tagen wird der Verband abgenommen.

Nicht schwanger sind und nicht stillen in gutem allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand sind psychisch stabil sind ihr Aussehen verbessern wollen realistische Erwartungen haben, bisher noch keine Brustoperation gehabt haben.

Bis heute konnte jedoch kein Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung von Brustkrebs oder Rheuma nachgewiesen werden.

Infektion, Nachblutungen, Risiken der Narkose oder die Notwendigkeit von weiteren Korrekturoperationen. Vor allem dann sichtbar, wenn sich das Implantat bewegt.

In diesem Fall sollte das Implantat ausgetauscht werden. DEF 1a Plastic surgery to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant.

Many women are not completely happy with VI. The desire for corrective breast surgery may also stem from a congenital malformation.

For many women, the size or shape of their breasts is not only a question of their figure but also an essential part of their self worth.

Their attitude to their own body and ultimately their sexuality may be severely impaired by breasts they consider to be too small.

Today women who are unhappy with the size or shape of their breasts have many options for changing them and bringing their personal perception into line with their physical appearance.

Breast augmentation is sought by many women of all different age categories. Most women want naturally augmented breasts that are in harmony with the rest of their figure.

Before surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session.

The two of you will decide whether breast augmentation is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

Your new bust size and shape will also be part of an in-depth discussion. We do our utmost to meet your expectations about size and shape in proportion to your existing figure and in the interests of achieving the most harmonious and natural result possible.

For technical, medical and ethical reasons, we advise against any excessive enlargement of the bust. For breast augmentation, we use only the very latest, high quality implants.

These are made from textured silicon and give the breast more volume and firmness. The advantage of using this particular type of implant is that they cannot leak and they also produce very attractive, natural results.

The surgery itself requires an incision, either in the crease below the breast, around the areola or in the armpit.

The implant is then inserted and, depending on the condition of your soft tissue, positioned above or below the breast muscle.

Breast augmentation is normally performed under a general anaesthetic and takes about an hour and a quarter.

After Surgery On the day after the operation, the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed. You will have to wear a firmly fitting, support bandage around your bust until the fourth day, when this is replaced by a sports bra.

You VI. After six to eight weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. Initially you will feel a slight pressure sensation.

Implants positioned under the muscle may cause slightly more pain in the first two weeks. For a few weeks or in rare cases a little longer, you may feel as though something is missing or has changed.

This feeling passes in most cases with time. In rare cases, a patient may complain during the first six weeks of a foreign object sensation.

It is important to keep the breast area stable, to allow the implant to settle in and heal as well as possible. Will breast augmentation leave any permanent scarring?

The four and a half to five centimetre long scar will either be under the crease of your breast, around the areola or in the armpit.

After the full healing period has passed it is normally scarcely visible. The pros and cons of each technique will be discussed with you beforehand.

Do the implants have to be replaced after a certain time? As in the case of any procedure involving the introduction of foreign objects or implants, further surgery some years after the original breast augmentation procedure cannot be ruled out.

The reason why a replacement might become necessary has nothing to do with the durability of the implants themselves, but depends on any changes occurring in your own body.

For instance, the likelihood of requiring a replacement increases with age. However, routine replacement every ten years, as is sometimes recommended, is not necessary.

Based on our experience with the latest silicon implants, you can expect them to last a long time.

Which implants are the most commonly used? There is a basic distinction made between implants filled with saline or silicone.

Will I be able to notice the implants afterwards? Very slim patients with little underlying fatty tissue may experience some sensitivity.

However, in most cases, the implant is not visible from the outside. What are the risks posed by breast augmentation?

Capsular contracture is one specific risk related to implants. This is a natural reaction to a foreign object, whereby the body forms a sheath of connective tissue around the implant.

As this layer of tissue contracts, the implant becomes tighter and the breast will feel harder. In severe cases, corrective surgery may be required to remove the scar tissue.

This often goes hand in hand with an implant replacement. Is it possible to breastfeed after breast augmentation? Breast augmentation does not affect your ability to breastfeed, as the implant is positioned behind the milk ducts.

Extensive studies show that breast implants pose no increased risk of breast cancer. Depending on your occupation, you should allow for at least four days off work.

What does breast augmentation cost? Are the costs covered by health insurance? Breast augmentation is not covered by health insurance.

However, if capsular contracture occurs at a later stage, the costs may be partly covered. In , , breast augmentation procedures were performed in the U.

TED Brustverkleinerung N. Die Indikation, d. Eine relative Indikation ist der Wunsch nach einer kosmetischen Verbesserung.

Die Operation erfolgt in Narkose. Es existieren zahlreiche verschiedene Operationstechniken, die Ergebnisse VI.

Die Patientinnen sind in der Regel sehr dankbar, da sie eine deutliche Erleichterung ihrer Beschwerden erfahren. Die Narben sind nach der Operation sichtbar und werden gelegentlich durch den Zug der Brust auch breiter.

Leistungspflicht Ihrer Krankenkasse. Wie kann Ihnen eine Brustverkleinerung helfen? Es kann sein, dass Sie ein Notwendigkeitsschreiben von uns und Ihrem Hausarzt bzw.

Der Brustwarzenhof wird umschnitten und dieser Schnitt wird dann bis in die Unterbrustfalte fortgesetzt. Bei einigen Frauen kann evtl.

Eventuell kann auch eine Fettabsaugung bei der Brustverkleinerung Anwendung finden. Diese Methode hat den Vorteil, dass die Narben kaum sichtbar sind.

Eine Brustreduktionsplastik dauert etwa Stunden. Wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben? Nach einigen Tagen wird das jedoch besser.

Der Verband wird nach einigen Tagen entfernt werden. Risiken: Jede Operation beinhaltet gewisse Risiken, so z. Blutungen, Reaktionen auf das Narkosemittel und Infektionen.

DEF 1a Surgical reduction of breast size in order to reduce the weight of the breasts and relieve symptoms from unusually large, pendulous breasts.

The surgical procedure is also known as reduction mammaplasty. The weight of very large breasts can cause back strain and discomfort.

The bra straps can cut into the shoulders, produce permanent grooves and even scar them. The contact of the breasts and the lower chest wall can create a chronic skin irritation called intertriginous dermatitis.

Very large breasts may interfere with the ability to exercise. The breasts are reshaped to form smaller breasts and the nipple and areola are repositioned.

Breast reduction can also be used to even up the size of the breasts where one is much larger than the other, a condition known as unilateral macromastia mammary hyperplasia.

Breast reduction is not recommended for young women whose breasts are not yet fully developed or for women who plan to breast feed since the surgery may impair the ability to breastfeed.

The surgery may also result in decreased feeling in the breasts or nipples. Only the women concerned will fully appreciate the physical, sporting and even sexual restrictions that are associated with this problem.

Heavy, sagging breasts can sometimes be very uncomfortable and cause chronic pain in the back and shoulder area.

In the worst cases they can even lead to spinal problems and postural damage. Over time, for young women in particular, it may develop into an unnecessary psychological burden.

However, the important proviso is that the woman has stopped growing and the breasts are fully developed. The procedure can still be performed on older patients, provided their general state of health is good enough to allow such an operation to proceed.

You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session.

The two of you will decide whether breast reduction is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic two hours before your scheduled surgery. Smaller, lighter and firmer breasts can be achieved by removing superfluous skin, fat and glandular tissue in the lower breast area.

A new breast is formed out of the remaining upper sections by internally remodelling the breast mound and lifting the skin over it.

The areola is reduced in size and the nipple raised into its new position. The procedure takes about two and a half hours and is performed under general anaesthetic.

After Surgery On the day after the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support bandage.

After surgery, there may be some swelling and loss of sensation in the breasts, which should disappear in most cases after a few weeks.

Postoperative pain is extremely rare. It may take some weeks before normal sensation in the breasts is restored. For some time after the operation it is advisable to wear a comfortable bra that is gentle on the skin.

To ensure optimal healing, we recommend you take it easy for a period of up to six weeks particularly with regard to sport and physical activity.

Will breast reduction leave any permanent scarring? What are the risks posed by breast reduction? What does breast reduction surgery cost?

Are the costs of this procedure covered by health insurance? Because large, heavy breasts may constitute a health problem, e.

DEF The pigmented projection on the surface of the breast. In the mature female, ducts that conduct milk from the mammary glands to the surface of the breast exit through the nipple.

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DEF 1a 1. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis. Cancer is the general term for all malignant tumours.

SOU-DEF 1b Encyclopaedia Britannica KON 1 In regard to a tumour, having the properties of a malignancy that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and that may spread metastasize to other parts of the body.

Der verbleibende Anteil wird durch Splice- bzw. Eine der beiden Mutationen del4 wurde in drei miteinander nicht verwandten Familien detektiert.

However, if such a woman develops breast cancer, her chances of dying of breast cancer are not necessarily greater than those of any other woman with breast cancer.

Women likely to have one of these genes are those who have a strong family history of breast cancer. Usually, several women in each of three generations have had breast cancer.

For this reason, routine screening for these genes does not appear necessary, except in women who have such a family history. The incidence of ovarian cancer is increased in families with both breast cancer genes.

The incidence of breast cancer in men is increased in families with the BRCA2 gene. There is now convincing evidence that every woman with a BRCA mutation is at high risk for breast cancer, irrespective of whether she has a family history of breast cancer or not.

The BRCA mutations appear to cause breast cancer at an earlier age in younger generations. The culprit may be estrogen, which is rising with the epidemic of obesity.

Pregnancy is protective. BRCA mutation carriers who have children develop breast cancer as a rule later in life than those who never had children.

That finding is true for all types of breast cancer, not just cases caused by BRCA mutations. They may also be advised to take the drug tamoxifen to reduce the breast cancer risk.

Some women with BRCA mutations avoid breast cancer by having their breasts preventively removed. Most BRCA carriers are also advised to have their ovaries removed after childbearing since there is currently no means of early detection for ovarian cancer.

Removing the ovaries also helps to lower the risk of breast cancer. DEF 1 breast: One of a pair of glandular organs in mammals that secrete milk for newborns and infants.

Also known as a mammary gland, particularly in nonhuman mammals, the breast is unique to mammals and is not found in any other type of animal.

The surface of a human breast has a circular, pigmented area in the center called the areola. The nipple, a rounded protruding structure, lies in the center of the areola.

In mature women the breast contains a collection of 10 to 15 tubes, called ducts, that connect to the nipple.

These ducts branch out from the nipple into the interior of the breast, ending in clusters of rounded cells, called lobules, that produce the milk.

In addition to the structures directly connected with the production and outflow of milk, the breast is composed of fatty tissue and ligaments that provide support and shape.

Breast development begins in girls about 10 to 12 years old, when the ovaries start to produce the hormone estrogen.

Completion of breast development, which occurs around 16 to 18 years old, requires the interaction of other hormones such as progesterone, prolactin, and corticosteroids.

After breast growth is completed, the breasts typically undergo monthly cyclic changes in response to fluctuating hormone levels in the blood that occur during the menstrual cycle.

Just before the onset of menstruation, the breasts are often swollen and tender because the ductal system VI. If pregnancy does not occur, the estrogen level falls and the breasts return to normal.

During pregnancy there is a remarkable growth of ducts and lobules in the breast along with a thickening of the nipples.

After a baby is born, the hormone prolactin stimulates milk production in the breast. Initially, the breast produces a thick yellow liquid called colostrum, which is particularly rich in the disease-fighting substances called antibodies.

Within three to five days, the breast produces milk as the suckling infant stimulates the release of another hormone called oxytocin. This hormone causes contractions in the network of cells that surround the ducts and lobules, so that milk readily flows from the breast and into the mouth of the hungry infant see Breast-feeding.

As a woman passes the childbearing age and enters menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen.

The decreased stimulation from this hormone causes the milk-producing ducts and lobules in the breast to be replaced with extra fatty tissue.

Am kopfnahen kranialen oberen Ende des Manubriums ist eine Einkerbung, die Incisura jugularis von lat. Das Brustbein des Mannes ist schlanker als das der Frau.

DEF 1a The sternum is an elongated, flattened bone, forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax. It connects to the rib bones via cartilage, forming the rib cage with them, and thus helps to protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from physical trauma.

Its upper end supports the clavicles collarbones , and its margins articulate with the cartilages of the first seven pairs of ribs.

Its average length in the adult is about 17 cm, and is rather longer in the male than in the female. The sternum is composed of highly vascular cancellous tissue, covered by a thin layer of compact bone which is thickest in the manubrium between the articular facets for the clavicles.

These sections of the sternum arise as separate bones, and they may fuse partially or completely with one another. DEF Milk-producing gland characteristic of all female mammals and present in a rudimentary and generally nonfunctional form in males.

Mammary glands are regulated by the endocrine system and become functional in response to the hormonal changes associated with parturition.

The mammary gland of a woman who has not borne children consists of a conical disk of glandular tissue, which is encased in variable quantities of fat that give it its characteristic shape.

The glandular tissue itself is made up VI. Each lobe is drained by a separate excretory duct. These converge beneath the nipple, where they widen into milk reservoirs, before narrowing again to emerge as pinpoint openings at the summit of the nipple.

Circular and radiating muscles in the areola, a circular disk of roughened pigmented skin surrounding the nipple, cause the nipple to become firm and erect upon tactile stimulation; this facilitates suckling.

The areola also contains sebaceous glands to provide lubrication for the nipple during nursing. Mammary glands are derived from a modification of sweat glands.

They first appear in embryonic life as clumps of cells proliferating from a longitudinal ridge of ectoderm the outermost of the three germ layers of the embryo along the so-called milk line, from the buds, or beginnings, of the lowerlimbs to those of the upper limbs.

The number of these clumps that ultimately become breasts, or mammae, varies with each mammalian species according to the size of its litter.

In the human normally only one develops on each side of the chest. A lesser development of one or more breasts polymastia or nipples polythelia may, however, occur anywhere along the milk line.

In monotremes, they resemble sweat glands in structure, leading to speculation that they are sweat or sebaceous glands modified through evolution.

In higher orders, the glands at maturity are developed only in females; in monotremes they evolve equally in both sexes.

The organ in human males occasionally develops functional ability, giving support to the belief that lactation occurred in both sexes in prehistoric mammals.

The development of mammary glands is regulated by hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary and the ovaries; lactation is under the control of the other pituitary hormones.

Below, it is bounded by the diaphragm. The bony framework is encased with muscles, fat, and cutaneous tissues. Zu Beginn treten schmerzlose, meist derbe, schlecht verschiebbare, langsam wachsende Knoten auf.

Neben dem Tastbefund dienen v. Gesichert wird die Diagnose durch mikroskopische Gewebeuntersuchung. Dies weist auf genetische Faktoren bei der Entstehung hin.

Die Behandlung erfolgt meist operativ. Nach brusterhaltender Operation ist eine Nachbestrahlung erforderlich.

Nach der Operation gibt es u. Behandelt wird die gutartige Erkrankung mit hormonhaltigen Medikamenten. DEF Disease characterized by the growth of malignant cells in the mammary glands.

Breast cancer can strike males and females, although women are about times more likely to develop the disease than men.

Most cancers in female breasts form shortly before, during, or after menopause, with three-quarters of all cases being diagnosed after age Generally, the older a woman is, the greater is her likelihood of developing breast cancer.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and in North America and Western Europe, where life spans are longer, the incidence is highest.

For instance, it is estimated that over 10 percent of all women in the United States will develop the disease at some point in their lives.

The exact causes of breast cancer are largely unknown, but both environmental and genetic factors are involved.

A family history of breast cancer increases risk. Prolonged exposure to the hormone estrogen, as when menstruation starts before age 12 and continues beyond age 50, favours development of cancer, and women who have had certain kinds of benign tumours are also more prone to developing breast cancer.

Other risk factors may include lack of exercise, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, and previous medical treatments involving chest irradiation.

The most common symptom of breast cancer is an abnormal lump or swelling in the breast, but lumps may also appear beside the breast or under the arm.

Other symptoms may include unexplained breast pain, abnormal nipple discharge, changes in breast texture, or changes in the skin on or around the breast.

Early diagnosis greatly improves the odds of survival. When detected early, breast cancer has a very high five-year survival rate, and patients who reach this stage often go on to live long, healthy lives.

Survival rates are lower for cancers that have spread locally, and they are very low for cancers that have metastasized, or spread, to distant parts of the body.

Breast cancer may be first discovered by the patient as the result of a regular breast self-examination. A breast X ray mammogram is often used for initial diagnosis, but in order to confirm the presence of cancer, a tissue sample biopsy usually must be taken.

If cancer is suspected to have spread to nearby lymph nodes, they must also be sampled. Several imaging methods may be used to determine the degree of metastasis, including X rays, computed tomography CT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging MRI.

The presence of receptors for the hormones estrogen and progesterone is also determined because these receptors play an important role in the VI.

Almost all cases of breast cancer begin in the glandular tissues that either produce milk lobular tissue or provide a passage for milk ductal tissue to the nipple.

Cancers of these tissues are called lobular carcinomas and ductal carcinomas. Because these tissues are glandular, both cancers are called adenocarcinomas.

The most common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single hard, barely movable lump. This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases.

Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas. There are several other types and subtypes of tumour classified and named according to several criteria, including their outward appearance, cellular composition, cellular origin, and activity.

Paget disease is an uncommon type of breast cancer that begins at the nipple and initially causes a burning, itching, or tender sensation.

Eventually the lesion becomes enlarged, cracks, oozes, and forms crusts. Inflammatory carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that results in swelling and reddening of the affected area.

The area then becomes purplish, and the skin is hot, with the nipple usually becoming crusted and retracted. Any lump found in the breast should be examined by a physician for the possibility of cancer.

If it is found to be malignant, treatment may entail surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Biological treatment is also an option. Surgery is often the first method of treatment, and a range of procedures are used depending on the type and progression of the cancer.

A lumpectomy removes only the cancerous mass and a small amount of surrounding tissue; a simple mastectomy removes the entire breast; and a modified radical mastectomy removes the breast along with adjacent lymph nodes.

Radical mastectomies involving removal of the breast, underlying muscle, and other tissue are rarely performed.

Side effects of surgery may include changes in arm or shoulder mobility, swelling, infection, and numbness.

When lymph nodes are removed, fluid may build up in the region they were taken from. Partial or complete breast removal is often followed by cosmetic or reconstructive surgery.

Side effects of radiation include swelling or thickening of the breast, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, or skin irritations resembling sunburn.

Chemotherapy, the use of chemicals to destroy cancerous cells, is commonly employed. Chemotherapeutic agents also attack normal cells to some degree, causing side effects that include hair loss, immune suppression, mouth sores, fatigue, and nausea.

Breast cancer can also be treated through biological therapy, in which chemical inhibitors are used to block the hormones that stimulate growth of cancer cells.

Tamoxifen, for instance, is a common drug that blocks the ability of estrogen to stimulate tumour growth, and Megace blocks the action of progesterone by partially mimicking the hormone.

Herceptin is a manufactured antibody that binds to growth factor receptors on the surface of cancer cells and thereby blocks cell proliferation.

Breast cancer cannot be completely prevented, but the risk of developing advanced disease can be greatly reduced by early detection.

Women at high risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from taking tamoxifen to reduce their risk.

Women who are at extreme risk, as determined by a very strong family history or the presence VI. Die Therapie wird auf die jeweilige Erkrankungssituation der Patientin abgestimmt.

Operative Behandlung Es wird in jedem Fall angestrebt, bei Brustkrebs brusterhaltend zu operieren. Da viel Wert auf Kosmetik gelegt wird, werden Narben z.

Die erste Station, die die Zellen hier passieren, sind die Achsellymphknoten. Je nachdem ob bzw. Nach einer Mastektomie Brustentfernung muss im Normalfall nicht bestrahlt werden.

Hier kann die Bestrahlung auch als erste Therapie eingesetzt werden. Die Bestrahlung selbst ist schmerzfrei und erfolgt ambulant.

Das Operationsgebiet bzw. Diese Therapie wird normalerweise nach einer Operation eingesetzt. Die Medikamente werden entweder gespritzt oder als Infusion verabreicht.

Zellen des Verdauungstraktes, Haarzellen oder Blutzellen durch die Therapie angegriffen. Die Nebenwirkungen verschwinden wieder nach Beendigung der Therapie bzw.

Liegt ein hormonsensibler Tumor vor, kann das Wachstum durch antihormonelle Medikamente gehemmt werden.

Often, a combination of these treatments is used. Surgery for breast cancer consists of two main options: Breast-conserving surgery in which only the tumor and an area of normal tissue surrounding it is removed and mastectomy in which all breast tissue is removed.

Breastconserving surgery includes lumpectomy in which a small amount of surrounding normal tissue is removed , wide excision or partial mastectomy in which a somewhat larger amount of the surrounding normal tissue is removed , and quadrantectomy in which one fourth of the breast is removed.

Surgery: The cancerous tumor and varying amounts of the surrounding tissue are removed. There are two main options for removing the tumor: breast-conserving surgery and removal of the breast mastectomy.

Breast-conserving surgery leaves as much of the breast intact as possible. There are several types: Lumpectomy is removal of the tumor with a small amount of surrounding normal tissue Wide excision or partial mastectomy is removal of the tumor and a somewhat larger amount of surrounding normal tissue Quadrantectomy is removal of one fourth of the breast Removing the tumor with some normal tissue provides the best chance of preventing cancer from recurring within the breast.

Breast-conserving surgery is usually combined with radiation therapy. The major advantage of breast-conserving surgery is cosmetic: This surgery may help preserve body image.

Thus, when the tumor is large in relation to the breast, this type of surgery is less likely to be useful. In such cases, removing the tumor plus some surrounding normal tissue means removing most of the breast.

Breast-conserving surgery is usually more appropriate when tumors are small. However, in most women, the treated breast shrinks somewhat and may change in contour.

Mastectomy is the other main surgical option. There are several types: Simple mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue but leaving the muscle under the breast and enough skin to cover the wound.

Reconstruction of the breast is much easier if these tissues are left. A simple mastectomy, rather than breast-conserving surgery, is usually performed when there is a substantial amount of cancer in the milk ducts.

Modified radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue and some lymph nodes in the armpit but leaving the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is usually performed instead of a radical mastectomy. Radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue plus the lymph nodes in the armpit and the muscle under the breast.

This procedure is rarely performed now. Lymph node surgery lymph node dissection is also performed if the cancer is or is suspected to be invasive.

Nearby lymph nodes usually about 10 to 20 are removed and examined to determine whether the cancer has spread to them.

If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes, the likelihood that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body is increased.

In such cases, additional treatment is needed. Removal of lymph nodes often causes problems, because it affects the drainage of fluids in tissues.

As a result, fluids may accumulate, causing persistent swelling lymphedema of the arm or hand. Arm and shoulder movement may be limited.

Other problems include temporary or persistent numbness, VI. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative approach that may minimize or avoid the problems of lymph node surgery.

This procedure involves locating and removing the first lymph node or nodes into which the tumor drains. If this node contains cancer cells, the other lymph nodes are removed.

If it does not, the other lymph nodes are not removed. Whether this procedure is as effective as standard lymph node surgery is being studied.

Breast reconstruction surgery may be performed at the same time as a mastectomy or later. The safety of silicone implants, which sometimes leak, has been questioned.

However, there is almost no evidence suggesting that silicone leakage has serious effects. Ein einzelner Muskel lat.

Demnach unterscheidet man glatte Muskulatur und quer gestreifte Muskulatur. Das einem Muskel zugrunde liegende Gewebe ist das Muskelgewebe, welches aus charakteristischen Muskelzellen besteht.

Beim Skelettmuskel werden die Muskelzellen als Muskelfasern bezeichnet. Wenn der Muskel sich zusammenzieht, gleiten diese Filamentreihen mit Hilfe von Querverbindungen, die wie Sperrklinken wirken, aneinander vorbei.

Die Muskelfasern kann man nach ihrer Funktion in schnelle und langsame Fasern einteilen. Bei manchen Krankheiten, z.

It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle, and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs.

Much of muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart, or peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system.

Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.

There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.

Each muscle cell, or fiber, contains several myofibrils, which are composed of regularly arranged myofilaments of two types, thick and thin.

Each thick myofilament contains several hundred molecules of the protein myosin. Thin filaments contain two strands of the protein actin.

The myofibrils are made up of alternating VI. During muscular contractions, these interdigitated rows of filaments slide along each other by means of cross bridges that act as ratchets.

The energy for this motion is generated by densely packed mitochondria that surround the myofibrils.

Smooth muscle is found in organs made up also of other tissues, such as the heart and intestines, which contain layers of connective tissue.

Skeletal muscle is usually found in bundles, composing muscular structures resembling organs in function.

These often ripple the skin visibly during muscular action. The shape of the muscular organ is dependent on its location and function.

Muscle fibers have been classified by function into slow twitch type I and fast twitch type II. Most skeletal muscles are composed of both types of fibers, although one type may predominate.

The fast-twitch, darker-hued muscle fibers contract more rapidly and produce bursts of power; the slow-twitch, lighter-hued muscle fibers have greater endurance.

Muscles that are given proper exercise react to stimuli quickly and powerfully, and are said to possess tone. As a result of excessive use, muscles may hypertrophy, that is, increase in size because of an increase in size of the individual muscle cells.

As a result of prolonged disuse, muscles may atrophy, or diminish in size, and become weaker. In certain diseases, such as various forms of paralysis, the muscles may atrophy to such a degree that they are reduced to a fraction of their normal size.

There are two such muscles on each side of the sternum breastbone in the human body: pectoralis major and pectoralis minor.

Der Narbenverlauf entspricht dem der Brustverkleinerung, d. Was kann eine Bruststraffung erreichen?

Sagen Sie bitte, ob Sie derzeit Medikamente einnehmen und ob Vorerkrankungen bestehen. Stellen Sie bitte alle Fragen, die Sie zu dieser Behandlungsform haben.

Die Haut wird dann teilweise entfernt und gestrafft und die Brust so neu geformt. Allgemein kann gesagt werden, ass je ausgedehnter die Hautschnitte sind, desto umfangreicher kann eine Neuformung der Brust erforderlich sein.

Die Haut um den Warzenvorhof wird dann entfernt. Wie lange dauert die Operation? Eine beidseitige Bruststraffung dauert ca.

Wenn nur kleinere Hautschnitte erforderlich sind, kann die Operation evtl. Wie viel Schmerzen werden Sie haben?

Die leichten Schmerzen lassen sich jedoch gut mit Schmerzmitteln behandeln und werden von Tag zu Tag besser. Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten?

Die meisten Patientinnen sind schon unmittelbar nach der Operation sehr zufrieden. Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich erholt haben?

Wie sieht das langfristige Ergebnis bei den meisten Patientinnen aus? Blutungen, Infektionen oder Narkosereaktionen. DEF 1a Breast lift or mastopexy surgery is a technique performed to restore a more youthful shape and position to a breast that has developed ptosis drooping of the breast related to aging, pregnancy, breast feeding, or weight loss.

As the skin loses its elasticity, the breasts often lose their shape and firmness and begin to sag.

No surgery can permanently delay the effects of gravity. Mastopexy can also reduce the size of the areola, the darker skin surrounding the nipple.

Incisions required for breast lift are similar to those required for a breast reduction. GLOSSAR B The major difference between a mastopexy and a reduction are that in a reduction the excess breast tissue is removed while in a lift it is lifted and rearranged to a more youthful position.

If your breasts are small or have lost volume, breast implants inserted in conjunction with mastopexy can increase both their firmness and their size.

Ideal candidates for breast lift or mastopexy surgery are those women who are pleased with the size of their breast when wearing a bra and those patients with good quality skin with few stretch marks.

Breast lift surgery, which may also be performed in conjunction with breast augmentation or breast reduction surgery, gives the affected women firmer and more youthful breasts, and can have a long-term positive effect on both their physical proportions and their self-esteem.

Breast lifts are an option for many women in very different age groups. Frequently the desire for cosmetic surgery comes after a number of pregnancies or major weight loss.

Other reasons include extreme, agerelated drooping of the breasts or congenital breast deformity different shaped breasts; excessively large nipples, etc.

Before Surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session. The two of you will decide whether a breast lift is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

The specialist will also indicate the kind of outcome you can expect and any side effects and risks of the treatment.

Two weeks before surgery you must refrain from taking any medication containing aspirin e. You may take Ponstan, Panadol or Voltaren as an alternative painkiller, if required.

If you are unsure about the best choice of medication, please feel free to consult us at any time.

The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic one and a half to two hours before your scheduled surgery.

The nursing staff and specialists will prepare you for the operation ahead. Your specialist will also go through the details of your operation with you again and the anaesthetist will explain the planned anaesthetic procedure.

The volume of the new breast will depend on the amount of available breast tissue. A classic breast lift involves the breast mound being remodelled internally and the skin lifted over it.

In such cases, the volume of the breast remains the same, but the shape of the breast is improved and lifted. The incision runs around the areola and in a vertical line extending in a downward direction.

In some cases another incision is required along the line of your natural breast crease. The procedure takes about two hours and may be performed under regional or general anaesthetic.

We recommend staying in the clinic for one or two nights after surgery. After Surgery After the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support VI.

The following day the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed. Then you will be able to leave the clinic. A week later the support bandage will be removed and replaced by a sports bra.

This takes over the role of the support bandage and should be worn day and night for a further three weeks.

After four to six weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. In every other respect, be sure to follow the exact instructions of your specialist or nurse.

What are the risks posed by breast lift surgery? As a general rule, any operation carries with it certain risks e.

The specialist will discuss any potential risks with you as part of the consultation process and in preparation for surgery.

What does breast lift surgery cost? The cost of any treatment depends on the kind and extent of surgical intervention involved and can only be determined as part of a private consultation session and a medical examination.

If you decide to proceed with surgery, you will receive a detailed quote for all costs. The total amount must be paid no later than one month in advance of treatment, to ensure confirmation of the scheduled operation.

This advance payment, which is standard practice in the private health sector, is required so that the necessary preparations for your surgery can be made.

Are the costs of this surgery covered by health insurance? The costs of breast lift surgery are not covered by health insurance, as it is considered purely cosmetic surgery.

In the case of patients requiring simultaneous breast reduction surgery deemed medically necessary, partial cover or even full cover is possible.

However, any partial or full cover of costs by your health insurance company will depend on provision of a comprehensive medical report. Will breast lift surgery leave any permanent scarring?

Normally breast reduction surgery will leave faint, light scars that are scarcely noticeable.

Due to the removal of tissue and skin from the breasts, the position of the nipples will change. To ensure an aesthetically pleasing result is achieved, the areola will be adjusted to suit the new breast and the nipple lifted into its new position.

This is normally achieved without any loss of sensation as a result. Das Resultat nennt man umgangssprachlich da die meisten Implantate aus Silikon sind auch Silikonbusen.

Das durchschnittliche Alter der Patientinnen sinkt von Jahr zu Jahr kontinuierlich. Dies ist unter anderem dann der Fall, wenn eine entstellende Fehlbildung der weiblichen Brust vorliegt, die eine Erkrankung im Sinne des Sozialgesetzbuches ist.

Die Kassen zahlen auch die Brustrekonstruktion mit Silikonimplantaten nach Brustamputation wegen einer Krebserkrankung. Was kann durch eine Brustaugmentation erreicht werden?

Wir werden mit Ihnen auch besprechen, wie z. Unter gewissen Voraussetzungen, wie z. Was haben Sie nach der Operation zu erwarten, und wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben?

Es ist wichtig, dass Sie die Medikamente, die wir Ihnen verschrieben haben, auch einnehmen.

Jemand sollte Sie unbedingt abholen und nach Hause fahren. Wie lange dauert es, bis Sie sich wieder erholt haben? Es ist sehr wichtig, dass Sie den Ablauf nach der Operation genau mit uns besprechen.

Wenn Sie unsere Anweisungen befolgen, sollten Sie sich problemlos und schnell von dem Eingriff erholen. Nach einigen Tagen wird der Verband abgenommen.

Nicht schwanger sind und nicht stillen in gutem allgemeinen Gesundheitszustand sind psychisch stabil sind ihr Aussehen verbessern wollen realistische Erwartungen haben, bisher noch keine Brustoperation gehabt haben.

Bis heute konnte jedoch kein Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung von Brustkrebs oder Rheuma nachgewiesen werden. Infektion, Nachblutungen, Risiken der Narkose oder die Notwendigkeit von weiteren Korrekturoperationen.

Vor allem dann sichtbar, wenn sich das Implantat bewegt. In diesem Fall sollte das Implantat ausgetauscht werden.

DEF 1a Plastic surgery to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant. Many women are not completely happy with VI. The desire for corrective breast surgery may also stem from a congenital malformation.

For many women, the size or shape of their breasts is not only a question of their figure but also an essential part of their self worth.

Their attitude to their own body and ultimately their sexuality may be severely impaired by breasts they consider to be too small.

Today women who are unhappy with the size or shape of their breasts have many options for changing them and bringing their personal perception into line with their physical appearance.

Breast augmentation is sought by many women of all different age categories. Most women want naturally augmented breasts that are in harmony with the rest of their figure.

Before surgery You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session. The two of you will decide whether breast augmentation is appropriate in your case and what form it might take.

Your new bust size and shape will also be part of an in-depth discussion. We do our utmost to meet your expectations about size and shape in proportion to your existing figure and in the interests of achieving the most harmonious and natural result possible.

For technical, medical and ethical reasons, we advise against any excessive enlargement of the bust.

For breast augmentation, we use only the very latest, high quality implants. These are made from textured silicon and give the breast more volume and firmness.

The advantage of using this particular type of implant is that they cannot leak and they also produce very attractive, natural results.

The surgery itself requires an incision, either in the crease below the breast, around the areola or in the armpit.

The implant is then inserted and, depending on the condition of your soft tissue, positioned above or below the breast muscle.

Breast augmentation is normally performed under a general anaesthetic and takes about an hour and a quarter. After Surgery On the day after the operation, the tubes used to drain blood and secretions from the wound will be removed.

You will have to wear a firmly fitting, support bandage around your bust until the fourth day, when this is replaced by a sports bra.

You VI. After six to eight weeks, all signs of the operation should have substantially healed. Initially you will feel a slight pressure sensation.

Implants positioned under the muscle may cause slightly more pain in the first two weeks. For a few weeks or in rare cases a little longer, you may feel as though something is missing or has changed.

This feeling passes in most cases with time. In rare cases, a patient may complain during the first six weeks of a foreign object sensation.

It is important to keep the breast area stable, to allow the implant to settle in and heal as well as possible.

Will breast augmentation leave any permanent scarring? The four and a half to five centimetre long scar will either be under the crease of your breast, around the areola or in the armpit.

After the full healing period has passed it is normally scarcely visible. The pros and cons of each technique will be discussed with you beforehand.

Do the implants have to be replaced after a certain time? As in the case of any procedure involving the introduction of foreign objects or implants, further surgery some years after the original breast augmentation procedure cannot be ruled out.

The reason why a replacement might become necessary has nothing to do with the durability of the implants themselves, but depends on any changes occurring in your own body.

For instance, the likelihood of requiring a replacement increases with age. However, routine replacement every ten years, as is sometimes recommended, is not necessary.

Based on our experience with the latest silicon implants, you can expect them to last a long time. Which implants are the most commonly used?

There is a basic distinction made between implants filled with saline or silicone. Will I be able to notice the implants afterwards? Very slim patients with little underlying fatty tissue may experience some sensitivity.

However, in most cases, the implant is not visible from the outside. What are the risks posed by breast augmentation?

Capsular contracture is one specific risk related to implants. This is a natural reaction to a foreign object, whereby the body forms a sheath of connective tissue around the implant.

As this layer of tissue contracts, the implant becomes tighter and the breast will feel harder.

In severe cases, corrective surgery may be required to remove the scar tissue. This often goes hand in hand with an implant replacement.

Is it possible to breastfeed after breast augmentation? Breast augmentation does not affect your ability to breastfeed, as the implant is positioned behind the milk ducts.

Extensive studies show that breast implants pose no increased risk of breast cancer. Depending on your occupation, you should allow for at least four days off work.

What does breast augmentation cost? Are the costs covered by health insurance? Breast augmentation is not covered by health insurance.

However, if capsular contracture occurs at a later stage, the costs may be partly covered. In , , breast augmentation procedures were performed in the U.

TED Brustverkleinerung N. Die Indikation, d. Eine relative Indikation ist der Wunsch nach einer kosmetischen Verbesserung. Die Operation erfolgt in Narkose.

Es existieren zahlreiche verschiedene Operationstechniken, die Ergebnisse VI. Die Patientinnen sind in der Regel sehr dankbar, da sie eine deutliche Erleichterung ihrer Beschwerden erfahren.

Die Narben sind nach der Operation sichtbar und werden gelegentlich durch den Zug der Brust auch breiter. Leistungspflicht Ihrer Krankenkasse.

Wie kann Ihnen eine Brustverkleinerung helfen? Es kann sein, dass Sie ein Notwendigkeitsschreiben von uns und Ihrem Hausarzt bzw.

Der Brustwarzenhof wird umschnitten und dieser Schnitt wird dann bis in die Unterbrustfalte fortgesetzt. Bei einigen Frauen kann evtl.

Eventuell kann auch eine Fettabsaugung bei der Brustverkleinerung Anwendung finden. Diese Methode hat den Vorteil, dass die Narben kaum sichtbar sind.

Eine Brustreduktionsplastik dauert etwa Stunden. Wie viele Schmerzen werden Sie haben? Nach einigen Tagen wird das jedoch besser.

Der Verband wird nach einigen Tagen entfernt werden. Risiken: Jede Operation beinhaltet gewisse Risiken, so z.

Blutungen, Reaktionen auf das Narkosemittel und Infektionen. DEF 1a Surgical reduction of breast size in order to reduce the weight of the breasts and relieve symptoms from unusually large, pendulous breasts.

The surgical procedure is also known as reduction mammaplasty. The weight of very large breasts can cause back strain and discomfort.

The bra straps can cut into the shoulders, produce permanent grooves and even scar them. The contact of the breasts and the lower chest wall can create a chronic skin irritation called intertriginous dermatitis.

Very large breasts may interfere with the ability to exercise. The breasts are reshaped to form smaller breasts and the nipple and areola are repositioned.

Breast reduction can also be used to even up the size of the breasts where one is much larger than the other, a condition known as unilateral macromastia mammary hyperplasia.

Breast reduction is not recommended for young women whose breasts are not yet fully developed or for women who plan to breast feed since the surgery may impair the ability to breastfeed.

The surgery may also result in decreased feeling in the breasts or nipples. Only the women concerned will fully appreciate the physical, sporting and even sexual restrictions that are associated with this problem.

Heavy, sagging breasts can sometimes be very uncomfortable and cause chronic pain in the back and shoulder area. In the worst cases they can even lead to spinal problems and postural damage.

Over time, for young women in particular, it may develop into an unnecessary psychological burden. However, the important proviso is that the woman has stopped growing and the breasts are fully developed.

The procedure can still be performed on older patients, provided their general state of health is good enough to allow such an operation to proceed.

You will first discuss your concerns with one of our specialists during a personal consultation session.

The two of you will decide whether breast reduction is appropriate in your case and what form it might take. The Operation On the day of the operation you will arrive at the Pyramid Clinic two hours before your scheduled surgery.

Smaller, lighter and firmer breasts can be achieved by removing superfluous skin, fat and glandular tissue in the lower breast area.

A new breast is formed out of the remaining upper sections by internally remodelling the breast mound and lifting the skin over it.

The areola is reduced in size and the nipple raised into its new position. The procedure takes about two and a half hours and is performed under general anaesthetic.

After Surgery On the day after the operation, your breasts will be bound with a firmly fitting support bandage.

After surgery, there may be some swelling and loss of sensation in the breasts, which should disappear in most cases after a few weeks. Postoperative pain is extremely rare.

It may take some weeks before normal sensation in the breasts is restored. For some time after the operation it is advisable to wear a comfortable bra that is gentle on the skin.

To ensure optimal healing, we recommend you take it easy for a period of up to six weeks particularly with regard to sport and physical activity.

Will breast reduction leave any permanent scarring? What are the risks posed by breast reduction? What does breast reduction surgery cost?

Are the costs of this procedure covered by health insurance? Because large, heavy breasts may constitute a health problem, e.

DEF The pigmented projection on the surface of the breast. In the mature female, ducts that conduct milk from the mammary glands to the surface of the breast exit through the nipple.

The surrounding flat area of pigmentation is the areola. TEE CE marking n. DEF The CE marking symbolizes the conformity of a product to the Community requirements incumbent on the manufacturer of the product.

It indicates that the product conforms with all the Community provisions providing for its affixing.

The marking should be affixed prior to the product being placed on the European market and entering into service.

Scope The Decision lays down rules for affixing the CE conformity marking concerning the design, manufacture, placing on the market and entry into service of a product.

These products may circulate freely on the European market if they are accompanied by, for example, a declaration or certificate of conformity.

Responsibility of manufacturers The CE marking must be affixed by the manufacturer or his agent established within the Community.

The manufacturer bears ultimate responsibility for the conformity of the product. Conformity assessment relates to the design and production phases of the product.

Depending on the conformity assessment procedures applied, a notified body may be involved in these two phases.

If the notified body is involved in the production control phase, its identification number will follow the CE marking.

As the market leader in this area, we offer a range of breast implants. The surgeon will talk through with you the most suitable type for you, depending on your particular body and the results you want.

And we only use breast implants that have been awarded the European CE mark for quality assurance.

Diese unspezifische Wirkung ruft bei einigen Formen der Chemotherapie schwere Nebenwirkungen hervor. Bei einigen Krebserkrankungen im Kindesalter wird eine Heilung angestrebt, bei Erwachsenen gelingt dies jedoch selten.

Heutzutage werden viele verschiedene Mittel zur Chemotherapie verwendet, je nach den zu behandelnden Krebserkrankungen. Nach einer Chemotherapie sind normale Zellen offensichtlich eher in der Lage, sich zu regenerieren nachzuwachsen und das betroffene Gewebe wiederherzustellen.

Ist dies nicht der Fall, ist ein Wiederauftreten des Tumors an derselben Stelle sehr wahrscheinlich. Eine dieser Gruppen bilden die so genannten Alkylanzien.

Eine zweite Gruppe bilden die Antimetaboliten. Gelegentlich eignen sich diese Medikamente auch zur Behandlung von Krebserkrankungen von Kopf und Hals.

Eine dritte Gruppe stellen die Purinantagonisten dar. Mercaptopurin und Tioguanin TG. Die letzte Gruppe bilden die zytotoxischen Antibiotika und pflanzlichen Alkaloide.

Es gibt noch verschiedene andere Chemotherapeutika, z. Hydroxycarbamid, Procarbazin und Asparaginase, die alle das Wachstum der Tumorzellen hemmen.

Interferone, die normalerweise von viral VI. DEF 1a Chemotherapy, in its broadest sense, refers to the treatment of disease with chemicals.

In current usage, however, the term applies primarily to the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer.

When used to refer to infectious diseases, the term is antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antimicrobial chemotherapy can be used either for prophylaxis prevention or treatment cure of disease caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, or helminths.

Cancer chemotherapy uses synthetic chemicals and antibiotics that can differentiate to some degree between normal tissue cells and cancer cells.

Chemotherapy is used in the treatment of cancer; no therapeutic agents are available for the prevention of cancer. The dramatic progress made in the transplantation oftissue and organs has been due, in part, to the use of chemicals that modify the immune response in recipients of these tissue and organs.

Oncologists use about 50 different chemotherapeutic drugs to combat cancer, generally administering more than one drug at a time because these drugs are more powerful when combined.

In some cases, the drugs cause programmed cell death. Many leukemias and lymphomas and cancer of the testicles are successfully treated with chemotherapy.

Breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer are not currently curable with chemotherapy alone, so chemotherapy is often used in combination with other therapies.

In fact, the most common combination of cancer treatments is surgery or radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy often causes severe side effects, particularly reduced resistance to infection, internal bleeding, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and insufficient oxygen in the blood, known as anemia.

Some tumors develop resistance to many drugs after exposure to just one drug, a condition called multidrug resistance.

When this happens, there may be no drugs that are effective against the tumor. DEF 1 Ligament: In anatomy, tough band of slightly elastic connective tissue, made of a fibrous protein known as collagen.

One type of ligament, such as a collateral ligament of the elbow or knee, holds together bones and cartilage at a joint.

This white, shiny ligament provides flexibility for freedom of movement and, at the same time, prevents the bones from moving too far apart.

Another type of ligament is thickened tissue that surrounds and directly reinforces a joint, such as the shoulder and hip.

Ligaments of yellow elastic tissue connect adjoining vertebrae in the spine. Ligaments also support abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, bladder, uterus, and diaphragm, and help maintain the shape of the breasts.

These ligaments are extensions of membranes covering the organs, or sheets of fibrous tissue. DEF 1a A neurologic or pharmacologic state in which painful stimuli are moderated such that, although still perceived, they are no longer painful.

An analgesic see DEF 2 , or painrelieving drug such as aspirin, may relieve a headache, but a person who takes an aspirin still feels other physical sensations, such as pressure, heat, cold, and vibration.

Pain is a crucial warning system that tells us when our bodies are in danger, but without anesthesia, pain would make surgery and various other medical procedures much more difficult - or even impossible.

Dieser technisch-wissenschaftliche Verein bildet gemeinsam mit seinen Tochtergesellschaften z. Der DIN e.

Im Bereich der Datenverarbeitung gibt es zahlreiche Normen z. Durch die Entstehungsweise der Normen soll sichergestellt werden, dass die Inhalte und Verfahrenstechniken den allgemein anerkannten Regeln der Technik entsprechen.

However, there are currently around thirty thousand DIN Standards, covering almost all fields of technology.

One of the earliest, and surely the most well-known, is DIN , the standard that introduced the A-series paper sizes in This was later adopted as international standard ISO in DIN is a registered association e.

Its headquarters is in Berlin. Since it has been recognized by the German government as the national standards body and represents German interests at international and European level.

A tube may need to be inserted to help the drainage of fluids. Usually patients are able to return home the day following surgery and able to move around in a day or two when bandages and drainage tubes are removed.

Hormone wie das Insulin direkt ins Blut ab. DEF 1a Cell or tissue that removes specific substances from the blood, alters or concentrates them, and then either releases them for further use or eliminates them.

Typically, a gland consists of either cuboidal or columnar epithelium resting on a basement membrane and is surrounded by a plexus, or meshwork, of blood vessels.

Endocrine, or ductless, glands e. Exocrine glands e. Types of the simple tubular and the simple saccular glands are, respectively, the sweat and the sebaceous glands.

The kidney is a compound tubular gland, and the tear-producing glands are compound saccular. The so-called lymph glands are erroneously named and are in reality nodes.

Bindegewebsanteile machen die Brust elastisch und fest. Each lobe is subdivided into many smaller lobules, separated by broad fibrous suspensory bands, which connect the skin with the sheet of connective tissue that covers the pectoral muscles beneath the breast.

Der Warzenvorhof hat eine zentrale Vertiefung mit einem kleinen Randwall. Bei dem Druck zwischen Daumen und Zeigefinger zieht sich die Brustwarze noch mehr nach innen.

DEF 1a Inverted nipples can cause both cosmetic and functional problems. During breast feeding infants are usually unable to suckle effectively due to lack of nipple projection.

The condition is due to the presence of tight or short ligaments within the nipple, which pull the end of the nipple deep down into the breast tissue.

Inverted nipples look flat, small and sunken without the ability to pop out and stay firm. In mild cases the inverted nipple corrects itself temporarily when it is stimulated by touch or cold.

In severe cases nipple stimulation does not correct the problem. Inverted nipples are usually evident as a slit or hole in the breast at the location of the nipple and may be present on one or both sides.

Inverted nipples are usually a congenital problem but may be related to scarring from breast-feeding or infection in the ducts, or a previous breast surgery.

Nipple inversion can cause functional problems such as irritation, rash and discomfort and may prevent the ability to breast-feed.

Abnormal nipple shape is graded from minor depressed profile, to flat profile, onto full inverted nipples where the nipple is essentially positioned below the plane of the breast.

Some women can breastfeed normally, while others will never be able to breastfeed. Nipples are inverted but can become everted manually through stimulation or in response to cold temperature.

They can remain everted for some time. Preocupaciones psicosociales con diabetes. En muchas partes del plan de comida simple comer con la boca llena no es plan de comida simple buena idea.

Ay, la vida sana. La siguiente ventaja plan de comida simple resalta Fernando es el equilibrio nutricional que plan de comida simple consigue al prever.

Sin necesidad de restringirles alimentos, como hacen todas las dietas, poco a poco se dan cuenta de que ciertos patrones alimenticios no les sientan bien, por lo que los eliminan de su dieta habitual", cuenta Fernando.

Vko 20 raskausdiabetes. Me encanta que sean tan claros al dar las indicaciones!!! Ah se me olvidaba todos los dias un aguacate y tb uso aceite coco.

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